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LASIK or Lasik (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis), commonly referred to as laser eye surgery or laser vision correction, is a type of refractive surgery for the correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. LASIK surgery is performed by an ophthalmologist who uses a laser or microkeratome to reshape the eye’s cornea in order to improve visual acuity. For most people, LASIK provides a long-lasting alternative to eyeglasses or contact lenses.

 


LASIK is most similar to another surgical corrective procedure, photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), and LASEK. All represent advances over radial keratotomy in the surgical treatment of refractive errors of vision. For patients with moderate to high myopia or thin corneas which cannot be treated with LASIK and PRK, the phakic intraocular lens is an alternative. As of 2018, roughly 8 million Americans have had LASIK and, as of 2016, dropping more than 50 percent, from about 1.5 million surgeries in 2007 to 604,000 in 2015, according to the eye-care data source Market Scope. A study in the journal Cornea determined the frequency with which LASIK was searched on Google from 2007 to 2011. Within this time frame, LASIK searches declined by 40% in the United States. Countries such as the U.K. and India also showed a decline, 22% and 24% respectively. Canada, however, showed an increase in LASIK searches by 8%. By 2015 in the US, LASIK declined by 50%. This decrease in interest can be attributed to a few things: the emergence of refractive cataract surgery, the economic recession in 2008, and unfavorable media coverage from the FDA’s 2008 press release on LASIK.

  • Cataract surgery, also called lens replacement surgery, is the removal of the natural lens of the eye (also called “crystalline lens”) that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract, and its replacement with an intraocular lens. Metabolic changes of the crystalline lens fibers over time lead to the development of the cataract, causing impairment or loss of vision. Some infants are born with congenital cataracts, and certain environmental factors may also lead to cataract formation. Early symptoms may include strong glare from lights and small light sources at night, and reduced acuity at low light levels.

 

  • During cataract surgery, a patient’s cloudy natural cataract lens is removed, either by emulsification in place or by cutting it out. An artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is implanted in its place. Cataract surgery is generally performed by an ophthalmologist in an ambulatory setting at a surgical center or hospital rather than an inpatient setting. Either topical, peribulbar, or retrobulbar local anesthesia is used, usually causing little or no discomfort to the patient.

 

  • Well over 90% of operations are successful in restoring useful vision, with a low complication rate. Day care, high volume, minimally invasive, small incision phacoemulsification with quick post-op recovery has become the standard of care in cataract surgery all over the world.
  • Corneal transplantation, also known as corneal grafting, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by donated corneal tissue (the graft). When the entire cornea is replaced it is known as penetrating keratoplasty and when only part of the cornea is replaced it is known as lamellar keratoplasty. Keratoplasty simply means surgery to the cornea. The graft is taken from a recently dead individual with no known diseases or other factors that may affect the chance of survival of the donated tissue or the health of the recipient.

 

  • The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil and anterior chamber. The surgical procedure is performed by ophthalmologists, physicians who specialize in eyes, and is often done on an outpatient basis. Donors can be of any age, as is shown in the case of Janis Babson, who donated her eyes at age 10. The corneal transplantation is performed when medicines, keratoconus conservative surgery and cross-linking cannot heal the cornea anymore.

The Squint Surgery:

  • There are six muscles attached to the surface of each eye.
    These are responsible for moving the eyes in different directions. The aim of squint surgery is to put your child’s eyes in a straighter position, by moving some of these muscles to strengthen or weaken their action.

 

  • The surgery may be carried out on one or both eyes and may involve moving one, two or move muscles. depending on the type of squint your child has. Sometimes more than one operation is required to get the best result. Additional operations would be carried out at a later date.

Diabetes and the eye

  • Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness and poor vision of the working population in the world. The eye is, unfortunately, very often damaged  due to diabetes whereby no part of the eye is spared. Eyes of the people suffering from diabetes is more prone to the occurrence of various infections and degenerative processes, and the cataract also occurs early. The most important complication of diabetes on the eye is diabetic retinopathy.

 

What is diabetic retinopathy?

  • It is a complication of diabetes in which there is damage to the inner layer of the eye, which is made up of nerve cells, and is called the retina. The retina has a key role when it comes to the human vision because the light that enters the eye through the nerves of the retina is converted into an electrical impulse that travels to the brain through the optic nerve, which provides us with vision. Diabetes is microangiopathy, i.e. small vessel disease, and therefore the retina is particularly affected due to ts very small blood vessels.

 

How to prevent the development of diabetic retinopathy?

  • It is necessary to do everything to prevent this severe complication. That is why every person suffering from diabetes needs regular checkups of the eyes at least once a year. The checkup shall include the dilation of the pupils and the examination of the fundus. This will not only consist of the test of vision, because changes may be present even though the patient does not notice visual loss.
  • This type of surgery is used to treat several types of glaucoma, including congenital glaucoma, neovascular glaucoma, and glaucoma caused by an injury. It’s done in a hospital and usually takes 1 to 2 hours.  

 

  • In this operation, the surgeon implants a tiny tube, or shunt, onto the white of your eye. The tube helps extra fluid drain out of your eye, lowering your eye pressure.  

 

  • Usually, you’ll be awake during this surgery — but you’ll get numbing medicine and medicine to help you relax. You can usually go home the same day, but you’ll need someone to drive you home.
  • Neuro-Ophthalmology is the specialty that is concerned with visual symptoms resulting from brain diseases. The visual symptoms can be divided into visual loss, or problems with eye movements. Visual loss may result from problems within the optic nerve or its connections to the visual portions of the brain. The eye is like a camera, and images are focused on the retina. The optic nerve is the cable that takes these images to the brain. There are several parts of the brain that are involved with precise control of eye movements. Difficulty within these regions often produces misalignment of the eyes with resultant double vision. Any of several processes may affect the optic nerve or its connections; including strokes, inflammation, multiple sclerosis or tumors.

 

  • Neuro-Ophthalmologists are physicians involved in the field of neuro-ophthalmology. Neuro-Ophthalmologists have completed medical school, and either a neurology or ophthalmology residency, followed by a neuro-ophthalmology fellowship.
  • Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body. It can be divided into two main categories: reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery. Reconstructive surgery includes craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. While reconstructive surgery aims to reconstruct a part of the body or improve its functioning, cosmetic (or aesthetic) surgery aims at improving the appearance of it. Both of these techniques are used throughout the world.